Ameronothroid mites, including Ameronothridae, Fortuyniidae and Selenoribatidae, are unique among the Oribatida through having a global distribution from the tropics to the poles, and occupying a diversity of habitats including terrestrial, marine and freshwater. Their ecological diversification is of considerable interest from both the perspective of evolution over geological timescales, and the detail of the underlying processes. Given their widespread global distribution, it seems likely that historical global events (tectonic and climatic) have played a fundamental role in their ecological diversification. Previous studies of sub-Antarctic island arthropods have generated considerable circumstantial evidence in support of glaciation being a primary factor influencing ecological patterns: lower habitat specificity and weaker interspecific interactions are associated with more recent (postglacial) vegetated terrestrial biotopes, as compared to the older epilithic and littoral biotopes (which are assumed to have been present, albeit reduced in extent, during Neogene glacial maxima). Here, we use ameronothrid mites as a case study to examine the extent to which the above island scenario generalizes globally across latitudes affected by glaciation. We show that, unlike congeners or even conspecifics at lower latitudes in each hemisphere which are restricted to marine environments, the species found at higher latitudes (especially Alaskozetes antarcticus, Ameronothrus dubinini, Ameronothrus lineatus, and Halozetes belgicae) show greater affinity for terrestrial environments. They show a transition or expansion of habitat use (from marine-influenced to terrestrial habitats) implicit with a lower degree of habitat specificity, in relation to increasing latitude. We contend that the terrestrial environment at higher latitudes in both hemispheres has been colonized by these ameronothrid mite species following the various glaciation events, facilitated by a lack of competition experienced in their low diversity communities, in a manner which represents a larger scale demonstration of the processes described on sub-Antarctic islands.
Long before the Arab republics in the Middle East and North Africa grabbed the world’s attention with inspiring democratic protests, they shared another curious political reality: leaders who, despite having been “elected,” claimed power like kings.By the end of 2010, Roger Owen, A.J. Meyer Professor of Middle East History, thought he was almost finished with his book on the phenomenon of these “presidents for life.”He soon learned how wrong he was. What began as a single fruit vendor’s act of self-immolation in Tunisia in December 2010 soon turned into a nationwide protest that spread like wildfire to neighboring Arab nations. At the same time, the website WikiLeaks’ release of a trove of diplomatic cables — including many from the American ambassador in Libya — provided insights into the region’s notoriously secretive regimes.“Suddenly, my book looked as though it was hideously out of date,” Owen said in a talk at the Center for Middle Eastern Studies on Thursday. He delayed publication to add an analysis of the political uprisings, which thus far have successfully overthrown rulers in Egypt, Tunisia, and Libya.What Owen found was that the dictators’ strength — their ability to share strategies for remaining in power over the decades — had been turned against them, bringing them under the same pressure to resign in their long-suffering countries.“There’s a clubbiness about these dictators,” Owen said in discussing “The Rise and Fall of Arab Presidents for Life,” which was released this month. “They learned from each other, and they egged each other on, and now it’s going the other way. The anti-dictatorial forces have learned something” from them.“I think we can say, in light of the Arab Spring, that these monarchical regimes brought on their own destruction,” he said.Still, Owen’s book, and his lecture, focused more on the rise of such presidents than their fall — and for good reason. These leaders, from the bureaucratic Hosni Mubarak in Egypt to the brutal Moammar Gadhafi in Libya, provided fascinating insight into the ways that entire governments came to be embodied in individuals.Post-colonial countries like those in the Middle East and North Africa, which have both “a desire to protect sovereignty and a desire to have security,” are particularly susceptible to dictatorial rule, Owen said.“The newly independent states place an enormous premium on unity,” he said. “They thought division had led to problems before. …You had to pretend that everybody was on the same page, and that the only people who were making trouble were agents of foreign powers.”That strategy required keeping up appearances of absolute authority, even as some presidents grew old and frail. Mubarak’s health became a state secret; at least one journalist was put in prison for suggesting that the Egyptian president underwent an operation for cancer. In researching the book, Owen and his students became “briefly obsessed” with Tunisian President Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali’s hair, which looked like “it had been imported from [Silvio] Berlusconi’s hairdresser,” Owen joked, referencing the slick former Italian prime minister’s ’do.“The one thing they could not reveal was that they were getting old,” Owen said, because the presidents feared any inkling of their future death would agitate the population.Over time, Owen said, Arab dictators created “mirror states,” systems that mirrored their beliefs and served to reinforce their centrality and authority.Gadhafi’s sons, for example, had an interest in keeping him calm to prevent him from ordering a dangerous attack, Owen said. Up until the day he was captured by rebels and killed, Gadhafi believed that his people loved him. Recently, Bashar al-Assad, who remains in power in Syria, claimed he has faced no real domestic opposition to his rule despite more than a year of unrest.“It was not in their worldview that there could be real citizens, not just foreign agitators or Zionist agents or terrorists,” who would want them to step down, Owen said.Even without protests spurred by widespread poverty, unemployment, and inequality, such presidents faced a natural deadline on their rule. Many have wrestled with the idea of succession, Owen said. But why would those countries allow their presidents to adopt the airs of a monarch — from grooming their sons for power to abandoning their modest presidential estates for sumptuous palaces?“Everybody knows the rules of the game in a monarchy,” Owen said. “That’s probably one reason why the monarchs have survived as well as they have [in other parts of the Middle East]. I think monarchy is much easier to understand.”Indeed, he said, the constitutional drafting process currently under way in some of the Arab nations is proving just how difficult it is to express the voice of the people without falling into chaos — or back into a pattern of heavy-handed rule. Even two centuries later, America’s example is hardly as enlightening as we’d like to believe, Owen said.“How do you get to a stage where 25 white men produce a document that says, ‘We the people’?” he wondered. “There’s a trick involved in how we do that.”
ECVB traveled to Lawrenceburg for the second match-up of the season on Tuesday. This was an EIAC match-up.It is never easy playing at Lawrenceburg, but these girls didn’t let that get to them. The competition was great and the atmosphere was even better. It was your typical rivalry match and it didn’t disappoint.We started strong in the first two sets, executing our game plan extremely well. We stayed calm and pushed with our serve to keep them out of the system and into running a more predictable offense. We understood that they were going to score points and we just had to stay in control of our game in the process.In set three, I think we got a little comfortable and Lawrenceburg capitalized on that. They made us uncomfortable in what we were doing and took advantage of it. But we didn’t quit and took the momentum toward the end of the game and carried it into set four. We gave up a couple of leads that got us into an extended play, but they held their own, didn’t panic, and just played disciplined Volleyball.East Central vs Lawrenceburg 9-24-10Varsity is now 13-6 on the season and 5-0 in the EIAC. Next up: at Connersville tomorrow for a conference match.Courtesy of Trojans Coach Cassie Laker. ECVB JV at Lawrence North Invitational 9/21/19 ECVB vs. Hamilton Southeastern-Loss 25-13-25-15 ECVB vs. Lawrence North-Loss 25-23 25-12 ECVB vs. Indianapolis Bishop Chatard-Loss 25-23, 25-13 This past weekend ECVB left Lawrence North without a win and bit of a heartbreak. We started the day off against a great competitor, but one that came out of the gates a lot faster and more disciplined then we were ready for. Playing back to back is challenging for a young group, but it is no excuse for poor effort. There are always a few positives you can pull from a day of defeat, but the biggest one I will emphasis on is execution. Whether you practice the basic or complex aspects of volleyball, it does not matter if you do not execute the game plan. This weekend was one with a lot of excellent, and mature, competition. It pushed the girls to another level of play but in reality, Indy volleyball never fails to force that level of play out of us and our program. It was a weekend of developmental growth for we entered this invite wanting and knowing it would be quite the challenge. We knew it may not leave us with the greatest success, but it left us with another lesson to a sport you will never stop learning from. ECVB is 11-6 on the season after the Lawrence North Invite. ECVB JV vs Lawrenceburg 9/24/19-Loss 25-12, 25-20 Coming from an 0-3 weekend can leave a team quite defeated and it showed in their play against Lawrenceburg. They lacked the simple idea of confidence that they have had in waves throughout this season. They are an overanalyzing, analytical group of young girls and it is not always easy for them to play carefree. At this point in the season it is crucial they come back together as one and find the joy and success in the game again. Ruts in a season tend to happen, but they are not meant to last. We have a few more games to get things in line before EIAC tournament time at the JV level. ECVB JV is now 11-7 on the season. and 5-1 in the EIAC. Next up, at Connersville starting at 5:30. ECVB Freshmen vs. Lawrenceburg-Win 25-14 17-25 15-13 ECVB Freshmen vs Richmond-Win 25-23 25-21 The Freshmen group has pulled forward one match at a time for at this level they play in preparation for the next game of the night, JV. Even though they have been successful when it comes to wins in the stat book, it is important we continue to work towards bettering our side of the net and the opportunities we are given at the freshmen level in regards to being better at the JV level. As I’ve said before, I am proud of their fight because even though this group can become a head case at times they also have moments of fight when it comes to finishing a match. ECVB Freshmen are 9-0 on the season and 4-0 in the EIAC. Courtesy of Trojans Coach Josie Andres.
Manchester, United Kingdom | AFP | Manchester United manager Jose Mourinho believes it was important for two coaches of his and Chelsea’s Antonio Conte’s stature to put their public dispute behind them by shaking hands before and after United’s 2-1 victory on Sunday.Mourinho and Conte’s simmering rift exploded in January when the Portuguese cited an accusation brought by the Italian Football Federation in 2012 that Conte failed to report match-fixing involving his former club Siena during the 2010-11 season.Then coach of Juventus, Conte received an initial 10-month suspension, which was later reduced to four months, before being acquitted of the charges in 2016.Conte responded by calling Mourinho “a little man”, but the two exchanged a smile before kick-off and embraced afterwards as United came from behind to win at Old Trafford thanks to goals from Romelu Lukaku and Jesse Lingard.“I think the handshake doesn’t need any words,” said Mourinho. “I think that’s what me and Antonio will want to show to everyone.“The handshake before and after the match is an example that everything in football you have to move (on) and you have to respect each other.“Mourinho and Conte are not two ordinary persons in football. We have a history, we have an image and I’m really happy with that.”Conte was less effusive when quizzed over whether he and Mourinho had decided before the game to bury the hatchet.“He wanted to see shake hands and we did the peace,” said the Italian.On the field Mourinho got the upper hand, but only after Chelsea bossed the opening exchanges.Chelsea went in front just before the half hour mark when Willian and Eden Hazard exchanged passes before Willian drilled home his fourth goal in three games. “The beginning of the game was blue,” admitted Mourinho, who brought £89 million man Paul Pogba back into his starting line-up as part of a new four-man diamond shape in midfield.“We took a bit of time to adapt to some new positions on the pitch. The way we were playing the players in the midfield square they took a bit of time to find the timings to press.“We then found that balance and in the second half the team was solid, felt more comfortable to go in attacking areas and, without creating lots of chances because against Chelsea that is not possible, we created a few and score the winning goal that I think in the end we deserve.”Victory was a huge boost for United’s hopes of finishing in the top four as they move six points clear of fifth-placed Chelsea and back above Liverpool into second.However, Mourinho expects the fight between his side, Liverpool, Tottenham Hotspur and Chelsea for three places behind Manchester City in next season’s Champions League to go down to the wire.“We are four very good teams, all of them fighting to be in quarter-finals of Champions League and that shows the dimensions of the teams.“But from four of us somebody has to be out, so the fight will be big until the end.”Conte lamented his side’s inability to make the most of their dominance in the opening half hour as they slipped to a third defeat in four league games.“At the end we are talking about another defeat.“We must be disappointed because when you have this type of situation you have to manage the game better with experience and maturity to get three points.”Share on: WhatsApp
Lancashire’s Les Wilson has accepted the nomination to become President Elect of England Golf for 2020. He will succeed Somerset’s Graham Yates as President in 2021.Les was a relative latecomer to the game of golf at the age of 33 when he gave up playing football for a local club in the Lancashire Amateur League. It was then that he joined Greenmount Golf Club near Bury and he has been a member there ever since. He is also a member at Royal Lytham & St Anne’s and plays to a handicap of 13.The new President Elect first got involved with golf administration at his home club of Greenmount in the late 1980s. He went on to become junior organiser for the Bury and District Golf Association and then in 1999 joined the executive of the Lancashire Union of Golf Clubs and was Championship Chairman before becoming its President in 2012.Les was appointed to the Board of England Golf in 2014 and has since played a key role in many areas including as Chairman of its Finance and Audit committee and on its Championship Panel.“It is a huge honour to have been nominated as the next President Elect of England Golf,” he said. “The invitation came totally out of the blue but I can assure you it took next to no time to accept.“Golf has played a huge part in my life over the past 30-odd years and it has been my privilege to have had the chance to work with so many volunteers and colleagues dedicated to driving the game forwards.“I have huge respect for the Past Presidents of England Golf and can only hope that I fulfil my duties as diligently and as successfully as they have done.“I am taking up the post with a mixture of excitement and apprehension but, above all else, I look forward to meeting lots of people up and down the country over the next few years,” he added. “That is going to be a lot of fun.” Away from the golf course Les is Chairman of a software house which he founded in 1984 and which specialises in document management and workflow system implementation and maintenance.He is married to wife Lesley and has two daughters, Emma and Anika, and two granddaughters, Ysabelle and Keira. 16 Jul 2019 Lancashire’s Les Wilson to be 2021 England Golf President Tags: England Golf, Les Wilson, President